15 Jun 2021

Library Engagement and Information Services (EIS) at Maynooth University Library in a time of COVID

Guest Post by Edel King (MLIS from UCD, 2015). She currently works as a Library Assistant in the Engagement and Information Services Department in Maynooth University Library.

During the past year the Library EIS team have had to learn a lot of new ways of working. While this was challenging, it was also a great opportunity to learn, and it gave us time to get involved in library projects in a way that would not have been possible in normal times.


When Ireland went into lockdown in March of last year, the normal desk work that we do stopped. We worked from home on designated tasks given to us by senior management in the library, which allowed us time to develop new skills. 

One of the team, Linda O’Connell, wrote a reflective blog post on her career as she nears retirement. It was published on LibFocus (and can be read here) and gave us all great insights into our valued colleague. Bernie Mellon did some research on the Ogoni Nine (a group of men executed in 1995 for protesting the pollution of their homeland Ogoni, in Nigeria). This was in preparation for a book I am a Man of Peace: Writings Inspired by the Maynooth University Ken Saro-Wiwa Collection (which can be viewed here). Helen O’Connor wrote a blog on an Integration and Diversity event attended by library staff that was also published on LibFocus (here). I wrote a report on front desk innovations from around the world in the last five years. I learnt a lot about usability testing, seating mapping, wayfinding and other ways of getting feedback from the user on their library experience. 

We kept our users abreast of developments during the lockdowns on our website and social media channels

Working on site

When we went back on site in August last year, library staff were assigned to either a red or green team. Each team alternated between a week on site and a week working from home. 

It seemed for a while that every time we came back to campus after a week away, something had changed. Sometimes it was a new policy regarding students and opening, at other times a new way of doing something that had to be learned. Alongside all this my colleagues in Library IT Development had implemented a new Library Management System (LMS) called ALMA, and we had to get to know it. It was challenging at the time, but I think looking back, we all feel like it upped our skillset and our confidence in our ability to manage any challenge obstacle that came our way grew.

New Services

As the new academic year began library services were extended and we were exposed to many new challenges. This included managing chat and email from home, Click and Collect, Digital on Demand and facilitating laptop loans. Doing shifts of chat and email from home gave me the excuse to invest in new toys, namely a wireless keyboard and mouse – to protect my neck of course! 

My home workstation

Both the Click and Collect and Digital on Demand services have been very successful. These services began in March 2020 and a year later, we have satisfied nearly 4,000 Click and Collect requests and nearly 400 Digital on Demand requests

Once we began to have students back on site, they booked slots to come in in person. Initially for 2 hours, this was and later expanded to 3.5 hours. Keeping track of the various booking systems and check in apps kept us on our toes!

Project Work

Being in two teams meant that we had some available time in our week off campus. This allowed our manager to delegate projects for each team to do during their week at home. It was a great opportunity to catch up on projects that required time and concentration. We worked on two projects: one related to extreme overdues, the other related to renewals.

The overdues project involved dividing up a list of nearly 1600 overdue items between us, returning the items on ALMA, waiving the fines on the associated accounts and changing the item policy to WWithdrawn. This project gave us all a chance to gain valuable experience of using ALMA very thoroughly.

The overdues project looked at items checked out of the library years ago. By contrast, the renewals project looked at items on current students’ accounts. Owing to the varying COVID restrictions there have been issues with students coming to campus and returning items on their account. The purpose of this project was to alleviate the pressure on students to return their items by renewing the items and extending the due dates on them into the summer. 

Blog Posts and Exhibitions

Because the EIS team work full-time on the desk, we sometimes don’t have the same flexibility to attend events, as other library staff. Our new work pattern and the move to delivering courses via Teams and Zoom, afforded us new opportunities. A couple of us from the desk took part in an Academic Writing Month (AcWriMo) project. The result was published blog posts on LibFocus. The blogs were on developing resilience and Libraries of Sanctuary. We enjoyed having the opportunity to reflect and write.

I completed two sessions of Academic Writing Month, one in November and another in February. The group met once a week for one hour over a four-week period via Teams and progressed our writing. Myself and my colleague David Rinehart created and presented a poster on AcWriMo at the Irish Libraries: Living with Covid-19 seminar at Maynooth University in January (recordings from the seminar can be viewed here).

The poster myself and David created for the Irish Libraries: Living with Covid-19 seminar

One of my published blog posts for Academic Writing Month related to another project I worked on this year. For World Book Day in March, myself and two staff members from Special Collections & Archives, Adam Staunton and David Rinehart, were tasked with doing an exhibition using the Microsoft application Sway. It was on African Women Writers. 

One of the six themes of our Library Strategic Plan is Equality, Diversity & Interculturalism. A task under this theme is to, “ensure a diverse range of Library exhibitions and events that reflect both our increasingly diverse university community and national developments”. Organising this exhibition for World Book Day contributed to the action under this task.  

Image from the African Women Writers exhibition (image courtesy of Elaine Bean)

As both Adam and David are relatively new to the library, I was delighted to be given the opportunity to work with them on these projects and to have the chance to get to know them. We highlighted the exhibition on social media and got a retweet from one of the authors included and a comment from another. It was a great opportunity for the three of us to learn a new application and to introduce ourselves to some new writers. The three of us expanded the exhibition for Africa Day Ireland on May 25th. It’s great to be able to publicise the authors from the Global South in our collection.

Library Strategic Plan 2020-2023

Another member of the EIS team, Bridie O’Neill, had the opportunity to work in an administrative support capacity with the Library Strategic Plan Steering Group. This involved attending a training session on using Planner and subsequently inputting the various actions associated with tasks from the Strategic Plan to Planner. She had started working in the library just before lockdown and she told me that she thoroughly enjoyed being part of the collaboration and that the process really made her feel part of the library team. Other tasks delegated to my colleagues involved transcribing, maintaining a list of internal and external memberships and other ad hoc duties as required.

We were assigned tasks with regard to the Strategic Plan  

I was also able to assist in progressing another task in our Strategic Plan over the past year. Namely, “we will develop a core collection of current books relating to Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI)”. With input from the Maynooth University Equality Officer, I placed orders for a core collection of textbooks on Equality, Diversity and Inclusion (EDI) to be purchased for the library. 


The members of the EIS team have had a very varied year. We have been challenged like never before. But we have embraced it all as well as all of the other opportunities that we have been afforded away from the desk. The pandemic has been a tough time for everyone, but it has also given myself and my colleagues at the desk a chance to push ourselves and do things we might not have had the opportunity to do otherwise. We gained in experience and skills, the Library benefited from the new tasks and projects we took on and it kept us busy during a very uncertain time.

8 Jun 2021

An exploration of the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reading Programm

Blogpost by Sinead Kelleher, @sineadKGdipLIS.

In an information rich society, it is evident that literacy skills and in particular, reading is an essential skill to have. The Department of Education in Ireland recognises this need and in 2019, provided a practice report to teachers, “Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers A Good Practice Guide for Teachers” (Department of Education and Skills, 2019), this report explored new forms of reading intervention methods. Different intervention methods using technology to improve reading skills (Valmont, 2003) are being used more often by teachers. One method the report suggested for struggling students to improve their reading was a web-based reading intervention program called Accelerated Reader (Department of Education and Skills, 2019). In 2019, two hundred schools in Ireland were using this Accelerated Reading programme, (Department of Education and Skills, 2019). This literary review will explore the literature surrounding the Accelerated Reading programme and in particular how Accelerated Reading effects a student’s reading in terms of quality, quantity and the effectiveness of the programme in improving reading standards. This review will also explore how the implementation of the Accelerated Reading Program in schools has an effect on the results of the Accelerated Reading programme. Within this paper the term Accelerated Reading/Reader will be abbreviated to AR for the sake of ease of reading.

How the Accelerated Reading Programme Works

The Accelerated Reading programme was developed by Renaissance Learning as a reading tool to assess, analyse and develop a student’s reading and is done in the following way. The student reading level is assessed through their STAR reading level test. The results are automatically fed back to the teacher, who then allocates a target level of points for the student to read. Students then read a book within their reader level bandwidth and do an AR comprehension test based on the book they have read. Books are levelled using the ATOS reading formula. Students earn points in the test based on how many questions they answered correctly with an aim to reach their points target assigned by their teacher (Cuddeback et al. 2002). Literature such as Cuddeback et al. (2002) suggests that AR could be used as a tool to measure a student’s reading by using this three-pronged approach of measuring the quantity of the number of books read by the students the quality of the reading tested through the AR comprehension test and the reading challenge by progressing through the reading level bandwidths.

Quantity of Reading

The literature that supports the Accelerated Reading programme indicates that the more you read, the better a reader you become and that students who are not such good readers will avoid reading, (Topping et al. 1999). In this sense the Articulated Reading programme gives the student the opportunity to read more (Topping et al. 1999; Krashen, 2003; Moyer et al., 2011). Research papers including Cuddeback et al. (2002) supports the premise that AR gives its user’s a gentle nudge into reading although it does concede that their research mainly focused on reluctant readers. Studies such as (Topping et al. 1999; Cuddeback et al. 2002) show that the AR system allows teachers to measure the number of the books students have read and in this way, teachers can use the AR system as a tool to monitor students reading levels and therefore identify students who are at risk readers.

Quality of Reading in terms of Comprehension and Challenge

As well as monitoring the reading levels of students the AR system is promoted as a tool to monitor the quality of the participants reading levels (Topping et al. 1999). The literature within this review found varying different results from different studies on this. The findings in (Foster et al., 2014; Shannon et al., 2015) supports the premise that the AR program is an effective tool to analyse the quality of the participants reading comprehension. Foster’s findings were based on an evaluation of an American school in the Caribbean. His results showed that if a student does not do any additional AR reading that their reading level will fall behind, in addition research in this paper showed that the Accelerated Reading program’s use of reading levels was a valuable tool in designing personal reading goals for students, which contributed to the quality of their reading achievements.

Other studies in the United Kingdom such as Gorard et al. (2015) evaluated the AR reading system involving a randomised control test of 349 participants in 4 schools, the participants did a 22-week programme of AR and reports indicated an increase in the level of reading comprehension, with a particular increase with children from disadvantaged communities.

Most educators and advocates of reading will agree that the quality of reading will improve by challenging a reader, it is not enough to read the same type of books at the same level, even students at a high reading level will benefit from reading at and above their level, this method is promoted through the AR program in testing and reading at appropriate reading bandwidths (Topping et al. 1999). This supports the scaffolding model of education, a model which is used in most school environments, and is used in primary schools in Ireland. In this sense the AR system is the scaffolding model which supports the students reading, the zone of proximity, which is when an educator or peer exacts the correct level of knowledge Zygotsky (1963), or in this case the reading level of the student in order to challenge the student by reading to the next level, not reading below or too far ahead in reading levels. The student will progress under the guidance of the teacher by following the feedback from the AR testing system. In this sense the literature in the review examines the Accelerated Reader as an evaluation tool to determine reading levels. Nunnery et al. (2006) reports the positive effects AR has on the reading achievements of at-risk students and children with learning disabilities. Literature such as Johnson et al. (2003) showed that there was an increase in reading achievement and vocabulary development in a group of students from a low socio-economic background.

Although literature such as Biggers (2001) argues that the AR programme only assessed a lower more literal level of comprehension ignoring a higher level of reading comprehension which would generally include a more critical or analytical comprehension of the book. Literature such as Cuddeback et al. (2002) argues that educators should not put the importance of higher comprehension over lower level comprehension. Literal comprehension can sometimes be undervalued. Cuddeback et al. (2002) suggests that higher order comprehension can be sometimes a result of a student’s background and in this sense the AR program reduces the bias in testing all students at a more literal level. Literature such as Cuddeback et al. (2002) supports the use of the Accelerated Reading Program with the added measures of other teaching directives that promote a lower and higher level of reading comprehension.

Accelerated Reading Program and Incentives

An integral part of the AR programme is its reward system to encourage reading. Cuddeback et al. (2002) points out that literature such as Cameron et al. (1994) shows that motivators when properly administered will have a positive effect and actually encourage intrinsic motivation. However, Biggers (2001) argues that the AR system favours the more competitive child and questions whether reading levels will drop when the rewards stops. Edmunds, et al. (2003) shows that when reading motivation decreases, reading decreases, however, although there wasn’t a decrease in motivation when students were given non- reading incentives to read, incentives alone have not had a positive impact on children’s reading motivation. Other motivators such as a teacher reading aloud and allowing students to talk about what they are reading can be used as powerful motivators in reading for students. Literature such as (Chenowith 2001) also discusses this challenge with the Accelerated Reader programme that although students who participate initially do read more books than the non-participants of the AR system, in her study the reading slowed down or even stopped when the program finished. Further studies such as Belland et al. (2013) suggests that a combined effort of computational scaffolding such as with AR with teacher support can benefit the student. Other literature sources such as Pavonetti et al. (2002) discusses how the AR system does not promote long-term reading using points and testing strategies. This variation in findings suggest a gap in the literature indicating that further research is needed into the longevity of the effects of the Accelerated Reading program on a student’s reading habits.

An obvious incentive to foster a student’s reading development is to provide material that they are interested in reading. Students surveyed in a study, (Thompson et al. 2008) described how within the AR reading lists there was a lack of supply of multicultural books or of books with a high readability level. Biggers (2001) suggests that the AR publisher does not take into account the reader’s interests when compiling reader’s list to correspond with the star test results. The students surveyed in Huang (2012) suggested that the biggest negative experience associated with the AR programme was the lack of the selection of reading material. As the school in question purchased the economy package from the publisher the reading selection was curtailed and therefore student choices were limited. Research such as Huang (2012) cited that the economy package restricted the reading material to authors from big publishing companies and newer or books from smaller less-known publishers/authors were not made available to them. Pavonetti et al. (2002) discussed also the economic limitations of the Accelerated Reading Program, in that it is an expensive package, the school just pays for the program and that the price does not include any books. Krashen (2013) suggests that instead of spending money on expensive reading software that the money would be better spent on providing more reading material and a reading environment.

Implementation of the Accelerated Reading System

Literature has shown that the incorrect implementation of the AR Programme can have detrimental effects on the results of the tool, Foster et al. (2014) has pointed out that students who read a lot and did well on the reading tests did better than those who didn’t get the correct guidance from their teacher, thus showing that teacher’s need to pay attention to best practice when using the AR system. Nunnery et al. (2006) also found that children with learning difficulties achievements had higher reading gains when the AR system was implemented well in comparison to a group where the AR system wasn’t implemented well. Waters (2016) also explores the importance of the correct implementation of the AR system and cites the lack of guidance from Renaissance learning in using the system for the teacher and suggests more input in training from them as a factor to resolve this. Moyer et al. (2011) showed in that with the teacher’s participation a more customised approach to the Accelerated Reader program increases the reading results for the students. Waters (2016) discusses the importance of involving parents within the AR system, suggesting that the school could have parent evenings in which the students could discuss the various reports from the books they read. This would become another motivator for the student, extending the incentive aspect of the Accelerated Reader program.

Literature such as Gorard et. al (2017) in looking at methods to support the correct implementation of AR found that many children in the UK were leaving primary school with low levels of literacy skills and although they were offered the support of the AR system within secondary schools, AR coupled with the new challenges of starting in secondary school proved to be too much an adjustment. These findings show that the AR system is more appropriately suited to primary school levels although more research in this area is needed.

Gorard et al. (2015) also focuses on the value of a good implementation of the AR system, for an AR system to operate effectively it’s important to have a well-stocked library, a wide collection of books of varying interest including fiction and non-fiction banded accordingly and easy access to computers with internet connection. Critics of AR such as Biggers (2001) have also noted that in school libraries where the books have been divided into AR reading books and regular reading sections students have been denied access to those reading sections.


In conclusion although the literature review shows that the Accelerated Reader programme has an effect on student’s who are in the at-risk reading group, it does also highlight limitations of the Accelerated Reading programme.

Most of the studies of the AR programmes are conducted with at risk readers, therefore studies on the effects of the Accelerated Reading programme on a more generalised normative student population would need to be done. Most of the literature’s findings are based on studies in American elementary and middle schools there is very little peer-reviewed literature based on studies in Irish schools. More research would be needed on this within the Irish school system to evaluate properly the programme within Ireland. Further research into a comparative studies of other reading intervention assessments such as the Lexile framework which has shown some positive results, Archer (2010), would be a useful study. Also, more studies on the long-term effects of the Accelerated Reader programme are needed to establish whether it is a tool with long term reading benefits. Finally, there is a limited number of peer-reviewed published papers available on this subject so further studies on the gaps in the literature on AR as shown in this literary review is essential to provide a more thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of the Accelerated Reading programme.


Archer, L.E. (2010). Lexile reading growth as a function of starting level in at-risk middle school students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 54 (4), 281-290.

Belland, B.R., Kim, C., & Hannafin, M.J. (2013). A framework for designing scaffolds that improve motivation and cognition. Educational Psychologist, 48 (4) 243-270.

Biggers, D. (2001). The argument against accelerated reader. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 45(1), 72-75.

Cameron, J., & Pierce, W. (1994). Reinforcement, Reward, and Intrinsic Motivation: A Meta-Analysis. Review of Educational Research, 64(3), 363-423. Retrieved November 10, 2020, from http://www.jstor.org/stable/1170677.

Chenoweth, K. (2001). Keeping score. School Library Journal, 47, 48-52.

Cherry, K. (2020). The Zone of Proximal Development as Defined by Vgotsky. Very Well Mind. Retrieved from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-the-zone-of-proximal-development-2796034.

Cuddeback, M. J., & Ceprano, M. A. (2002). The use of accelerated reader with emergent readers. Reading Improvement, 39(2), 89.

Department of Education and Skills - National Educational Psychological Services, Ireland (2019). Effective Interventions for Struggling Readers A Good Practice Guide for Teachers. Dublin: Department of Education and skills.

Edmunds, K. M., & Tancock, S. M. (2003). Incentives: The effects on the reading motivation of fourth-grade students. Reading Research and Instruction, 42(2), 17-37.

Foster, D. K., & Foster, D. P. (2014). Estimating reading growth attributable to accelerated reader at one American school in the Caribbean. Reading Psychology, 35(6), 529-547. doi:10.1080/02702711.2013.789764.

Gorard, S. Siddiqui, N and Huat See, B (2015). Accelerated Reader, Evaluation Report and Executive Summary. Durham University, Education Endowment Foundation.

Gorard, S., Siddiqui, N., & Huat, S.B.  (2017). What works and what fails? Evidence from seven popular literacy ‘catch-up’ schemes for the transition to secondary school in England. Research Papers in Education, 32:5, 626-648, doi: 10.1080/02671522.2016.1225811.

Huang, S., PhD. (2012). A mixed method study of the effectiveness of the accelerated reader program on middle school students' reading achievement and motivation. Reading Horizons, 51(3), 229-246.

Johnson, R. A., & Howard, C. A. (2003). The effects of the accelerated reader program on the reading comprehension of pupils in grades three, four, and five. The Reading Matrix, 3(3).

Krashen, S., The Lack of Experimental Evidence Supporting the Use of Accelerated Reader. Journal of Children's Literature 29(2), 16-30.

Moyer, M., & Williams, M. (2011). Personal programming: Customizing accelerated reader helps delsea regional high school encourage student reading. Knowledge Quest, 39(4), 68-73.

Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S. M., & McDonald, A. (2006). A randomized experimental evaluation of the impact of accelerated Reader/Reading renaissance implementation on reading achievement in grades 3 to 6. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 11(1), 1-18. doi:10.1207/s15327671espr1101_1.

Pavonetti, L. M., Brimmer, K. M., & Cipielewski, J. F. (2002). Accelerated reader: What are the lasting effects on the reading habits of middle school students exposed to accelerated reader in elementary grades? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 46(4), 300-311.

Shannon, L. C., Styers, M. K., Wilkerson, S. B., & Peery, E. (2015). Computer-assisted learning in elementary reading: A randomized control trial. Computers in the Schools, 32(1), 20-34. doi:10.1080/07380569.2014.969159

Thompson, G., Madhuri, M., & Taylor, D. (2008). How the accelerated reader program can become counterproductive for high school students. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 51(7), 550-560. doi:10.1598/JAAL.51.7.3.

Topping, K. J., Terry, P.D. (1999). Computer-assisted assessment of practice at reading: A large scale survey using accelerated reader data. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 15(3), 213-231. doi:10.1080/105735699278198.

Valmont, W. (2003). Technology for Literacy Teaching and Learning. Houghton Mifflin.

Waters, T. K. (2016). Improving reading: A case study of the accelerated reader program. (2016) (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Gardner-Webb University School of Education, North Carolina.

Posted on Tuesday, June 08, 2021 | Categories:

25 May 2021

The Politics of Subject Headings

Guest post by Ailbhe O'Rourke, MLIS student graduating in Summer 2021.

In February 2014, a group of students from Dartmouth College stumbled upon the subject heading “illegal aliens” in the Library of Congress database. With the support of their campus librarians, the Dartmouth Coalition for Immigration Reform, Equality, and DREAMERs (CoFIRED) submitted a request to the Library of Congress to revise the heading “illegal aliens” and replace it with the term “undocumented immigrants”.

Since the early 2010’s, the term “illegal alien” had been widely acknowledged as a racist and outdated phrase. By 2014, news outlets and politicians had dropped the expression from their vernacular and the term had been phased out of public discourse. In 2016, the Library of Congress announced the intention to replace the term "illegal aliens" with "non-citizens".

However, in this instance, the symbiotic relationship between LoC subject headings and U.S. politics became apparent as Senator Diane Lane moved to block the proposed change. This was the first incident of the House of Representatives blocking a LoC subject heading amendment.

One might ask how a presiding U.S. government can have authority over the manner in which subjects are catalogued. The question is all the more pertinent considering the American Library Association describes itself as content- neutral, unbiased and nonpartisan. Library of Congress subject headings are in ubiquitous use across the world. It is concerning that this institution, which welds such power across in both the U.S. and internationally, is at the mercy of the House of Representatives.

A brief history of the LoC within the context of U.S. politics

Politics and the LoC have an uneasy relationship dating back to the post- war years. During the Cold War, librarians fought to retain the “right to read” amid increasing attempts at censorship by the U.S government. The post-war climate was one of paranoia and fear. As the USSR continued its expansion across eastern Europe, American society was on high alert and feared that communist interlopers had infiltrated their society. The U.S. government was eager to censor any material that could be considered communist- this did not pertain only to socialist literature, but anything written by an author who had been accused of having communist sympathies. 1948, the ALA sought tostrengthen the Library Bill of Rights to preserve intellectual freedom andmaintain the “right to read”.

In the early 1950s Senator Joseph Mc Carthy commenced a series of senate hearings investigating “anti-government activities”. The era of “McCarthyism” had begun. Riding a wave of populism and fear- mongering, the charismatic Mc Carthy conducted hearings, ideally targeting well-known victims that would garner a lot of press. In a pre- twitter era, these hearings were headline grabs; no more than publicity stunts, aiming to capitalise on a fraught nations’ post -war paranoia. Rarely were any of Mc Carthy’s accusations proven or prosecuted.

Two of Mc Carthy’s right-hand men, Roy Cohn and David Schine, were sent on an overseas tour to ensure that European libraries had removed books from perceived “communist” authors. Cohn and Schine were instructed by Mc Carthy to remove and burn books by authors that had been “blacklisted” as a result of refusing to testify during Mc Carthy’s Senate hearings, however a directive then changed these instructions to removing and storing these books in a place where their corrupting influence could not be felt.

In 1953 Dwight Eisenhower had been elected president. He was no fan of Mc Carthys, but needless to say he had been quite happy to capailtise on the controversial figures’ popularity to win the Presidency in the previous year. As a retort to Cohn and Schines enthusiastic auditing of European libraries Eisenhower made his position clear, saying:

“Don't join the book burners. Don't think you're going to conceal faults by concealing evidence that they ever existed. Don't be afraid to go in your library and read every book.”

Coincidentally, this speech took place at Dartmouth College, where the conflict between librarianship and politics would reignite sixty years later. Mc Carthy’s reign was brief but impactful, and by the late fifties his senate hearings had fizzled out. However, the long-term affect upon the library as a tool to reinforce political ideals would continue to be felt in the decades to come.

The Delta Collection

For author Melissa Adler, a browse amongst subject headings would reveal outdated social attitudes entrenched within the LoC catalogue. Headings related to homosexuality had been historically classified under “sexual deviation”, harking from the days when queerness was universally accepted to be a symptom of psychological illness. She looked for “homosexual” or “bisexual” within subject headings and found the subject heading “Paraphilias” occurring within the cataloguing of books about LGBTQ issues.

As well as policing personal politics, in post- war U.S. the government attempted to police sexuality. In common parlance, the words “communist” and “homosexual” were interchangeable terms, and a relentless fear of the perceived “other” permeated social discourse. (In fact, Mc Carthy would become a victim of his own methods when his opponents heavily implied that he had a sexual relationship with Roy Cohn.)

And so, the Delta Collection was born. Housing materials deemed too obscene for the public, including books such as Lolita and Ulysses, titles within this collection were assigned subject headings such as “sexual perversion”. Books such as Kharmasutra and Fanny Hill as well as books about birth control and sex within marriage were amongst the books assigned to this collection in the late 1880s. However, during World War 2, the Delta Collection took on a patriotic role as political materials deemed as anti- American were also added to the collection. “This climate no doubt altered the very nature ofthe Delta Collection from being a repository of the cultural record to being apolitical actor in the post-war era, one with increasing significance asMcCarthy’s policies and rhetoric came to dominate.”

One can trace the evolution of social progress through the changing LoC subject headings relating to sexuality. From 1898- 1972, books that contained LGBTQ material were catalogued under “sexual deviation”. From 1972 to 2007, “sexual perversion”. And from 2007 to this date, “Paraphilias”. “Homosexuality” was added to the sub heading in 1946, reflecting a newfound social awareness of homosexuality in popular culture. “Lesbians” was not added until 1974. “Homosexuality” was cross referenced with “sodomy” and “social pathology” until 1972.

Renowned cataloguer and trailblazing librarian Sandford Berman, in conjunction with the Task Force on Gay and Lesbian Liberation, were instrumental in petitioning for the changes that occurred in 1972. The changes that Berman facilitated removed connotations between homosexuality and mental illness. In 1975, in a gesture a progressive gesture that was ahead of its time, the ALA and LoC issued a statement advocating for minority groups to be permitted to describe themselves, rather than submitting to the descriptions of psychologists or politicians.

Looking to the future- the role of the cataloguing librarian

In the spring of 2016, the House of Representatives ordered the LoC to continue using “illegal aliens”. This was the first time the House of Representatives had intervened in a planned subject heading change. Politically, 2016 was a fraught time of transition. Promising a wall between Mexico and the U.S., Donald Trump had become president. Brexit was looming across the Atlantic. Both of these incidents had been enacted by a rising wave of emboldened racist discourse.

This means that the intervention by government in the subject heading change was a symbolically significant event. Just as the ALA had had apprehensions of what loomed on the horizon in the late 1940s, this decision sent shockwaves through the world of librarianship. Much as the subject heading “sexual deviant” had sought to reinforce social norms in the post -war years, by preserving “illegal aliens”, Republicans sought to control the language in which undocumented immigrants were discussed. History seemed to be repeating itself. Trump further evidenced the power of language and the intent of the U.S. Congress by resurrecting the then defunct term “illegal aliens” during campaign rallies. By resurrecting this term, both Trump and the Republican party sought to spread fear and create a sense of “othering” much as Mc Carthy had sixty years previously.

Still, the librarians rebelled against the U.S. Congress. Harvard and CSU library replaced “illegal aliens” with “undocumented immigrants” within their own library systems. Over forty other libraries have followed suit with the same course of action. As of April 2021, “illegal aliens” remains a subject heading within the LoC.

Much has been said and written about the librarian’s role in fighting the rising tide of “fake news”. It is increasingly impossible for librarians to remain unbiased and nonpartisan in the multi literacy age, however looking back at history once may be forgiven for wondering if they ever truly could be.

Less has been said about the way information is catalogued, and how it can have long term ramifications for democracy, human rights and social progress. The LoC subject headings of any particular era are a snapshot of cultural norms and social attitudes- language is how we shape the world around us. But in the case of LoC subject headings, language can also be wielded as a weapon and instrument of oppression.

21 May 2021

A Review of IFLA Library Publishing Special Interest Group Virtual Open Programme: Library Publishing: A Catalyst for Change, October 15th 2020.

Guest post by Dr Johannah Duffy, Head of Library Services, Marino Institute of Education. Johannah has a strong interest in Library Publishing, Open Access, Research. Scholarly Communications, History, Cultural Studies & Learning

Attending the event was an insightful experience in seeing what so many information professionals and librarians are working towards in their own regions, countries, and libraries.  The expansion and increased access to information will inevitably create greater opportunities for the library community around the globe.  Organisers of this event, The IFLA Library Publishing Special Interest Group, advocate for the expansion of library services to include a library publishing service. A significant element of library publishing is the desire to advance open access as well as to meet local needs related to the creation and dissemination of scholarship. This webinar comprised of seven short presentations on library publishing case studies and collaborations. The diversity of the presentations, in terms of geography and diverse experiences made for an informative webinar with presentations from the Philippines, Russia, Nigeria, Germany, Turkey, Canada and the United States.

The case studies and collaborations included Jason Coleman, Karen E Dowling and William Lopez of the University of Michigan, who gave a powerful talk 'Collaboration & Commitment: Publishing Diverse Academic Scholarship for the Public Good'.  With a commitment to diversity, equity and inclusion, their goal is to help faculty share their expertise and research capacity with the public, through purposeful efforts focused outside the academy.  To facilitate this initiative, Michigan Publishing Services provide a suite of publishing-related services to help increase the visibility, reach, and impact of scholarship.

Dr Agnieszka Wenninger and Kathrin Ganz’s fascinating talk on 'Library Publishing & Editors – A Promising Partnership Based on OA', highlighted the invaluable role that librarians play in supporting editors and the overall publishing process. It powerfully captured open access literacy, advice on impact, typesetting, dissemination and more.  While, Selin Can Cemgil’s insightful presentation entitled 'Yilmaz Akkilic City Research Awards and Publications: A Library Publishing Example from Turkey', showcased the power of collaboration. This impressive presentation on how the Yilmaz Akkilic City Research Awards and Publications in Turkey has stimulated an extensive amount of high quality library publishing output provided an impressive example to us all. 

Library Publishing as an essential function in today’s information world: Models and Sustainability Plan by Academic Libraries in Nigeria’ by Dr Ngozi Blessing and Dr Aishat Egbunu, portrayed a robust example of models and sustainability of library publishing in Nigeria. This inspiring presentation articulated the possibilities but also the challenges that must be surmounted in relation to library publishing. It gives an excellent recommendation that library publishing should be taught to students. 

Gianina Cabanilla’s stimulating presentation on ‘An analysis of a publishing business plan for the UP College of Law, Information and Publication’, stressed sustainability, scalability and visibility. Ekaterina V. Nikonorova and Ekaterina A. Shibaeva of the Russian State Library, provided an excellent overview of their extensive and impactful Library Publishing Program.  I particularly enjoyed the focus on open access and transparency in Dr Ursula Arning’s presentation on ‘PUBLISSO Publishing and Advice Services’. This appears to be a primary and critically important imperative across library publishing programmes. 

This Library Publishing: A Catalyst for Change webinar highlighted that Libraries need to move beyond traditional roles of purchasing and distributing scholarly literature, librarians need to strategically position themselves and take ownership of improving access. As a direct result of Covid-19, there is a new level of urgency to transform the communication scholarly communication process and there are enormous opportunities for an expanded and inclusive library publishing service which addresses access to knowledge and literature.  The rich discussions of this event will stimulate the drive to make library publishing a mainstream service within libraries.   The clear message from this open programme is that libraries need to include publishing in their services, advocate for open access and serve our communities and societies.  If you have the chance, consider attending future IFLA Library Publishing Special Interest Group’s events to see the true scope of libraries and librarians.

The recording is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lIo_Ckq6ZHI

For more information, see: 

IFLA Library Publishing Special Interest Group


Library Association of Ireland Library Publishing Group